The Southern Kingdom, also known as the Southern Tribes or Judah, were one of two nations that resulted when Israel split due to the unwise leadership of King Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 10). The other nation was the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
Like the Northern Kingdom, the Southern Kingdom, was later conquered and deported. They, however, eventually returned, as covered in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai, and Zechariah.
It was through the Southern Kingdom (Judah) that the royal line of king David was perpetuated.
The Northern Kingdom, also known as the Northern Tribes or the Ten Tribes of Israel, were one of two nations that resulted when Israel was split due to the unwise leadership of King Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 10). The other nation was Judah (the Southern Kingdom).
The Northern Kingdom would eventually be conquered by the nation of Assyria, which deported the Israelites, forcibly dispersing them to many different areas. There is no biblical mention of these people ever returning in any significant numbers, and as a result they are therefore sometimes called the Lost Tribes of Israel.
The phrase “the Kingdom of God” is synonymous with “the Kingdom of Heaven.” Some writers in the Bible simply prefer one over the other; it is not meant to designate two different concepts. These two phrases could perhaps be best understood by considering that Jesus desires to bring heaven’s rule to earth. Under his rule, there are benefits and responsibilities to his subjects, the church. Jesus explains about the Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven through parables:
The parable of the Weeds (Matthew 13:24-30)
The parable of Scattering Seed (Mark 4:26-27)
The parable of the Mustard Seed (Matthew 13:31-32; Mark 4:31-32, Luke 13:18-19)
The parable of Yeast (Matthew 13:33, Luke 13:20-21)
The parable of the Hidden Treasure (Matthew 13:44)
The parable of the Pearl (Matthew 13:45)
The parable of the Net (Matthew 13:47-48)
The parable of Settling Accounts (Matthew 18:23-35)
The parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-16)
The parable of the Wedding Banquet (Matthew 22:2-14)
The parable of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-13)