Tag Archives: Apocrypha

1 Esdras

The book of 1 Esdras in the BibleThe book of 1 Esdras is essentially a carefully selected compilation of text from 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah. Interspersed within the condensed text from these other sources is the story of a contest between three of the king’s bodyguards. The bodyguard Zerubbabel wins. As a reward Zerubbabel receives permission to return to Jerusalem, where he becomes its governor.

There is some naming confusion about this book, with some Bibles labeling this text as 3 Esdras, since they call the book of Ezra, 1 Esdras, and the book of Nehemiah, 2 Esdras.

First Esdras is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Wycliffe Bible (WYC), Greek Orthodox Bible, Ethiopian Bible, and the original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include 1 Esdras. However, it was removed from the KJV almost two centuries after it was first published. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains 1 Esdras.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

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Prayer of Manasseh

The Book of Prayer of Manasseh in the BibleIn 2 Chronicles 33 we read the story of the evil King Manasseh. In a time of distress Manasseh seeks God and prays. God responds and restores King Manasseh to power (2 Chronicles 33:12-13, 19). In response, King Manasseh undoes many of the wicked things he had done earlier in his life.

Though the book of 2 Chronicles does not record Manasseh’s prayer, it has been preserved for us in this short book, Prayer of Manasseh, which the KJV calls The Prayer of Manesses.

This short, fifteen-verse prayer contains three parts. The first is praise; the second, confession; and the third, seeking forgiveness.

Prayer of Manasseh is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Wycliffe Bible (WYC), Greek Orthodox Bible, Ethiopian Bible, and the original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include Prayer of Manasseh. However, Prayer of Manasseh was removed from the KJV almost two centuries after it was first published. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains Prayer of Manasseh.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

Psalm 151

The Book of Psalm 151 in the BiblePsalm 151 is an additional Psalm, not found in most Bibles. Ascribed to David the text praises God for selecting him to become king and allowing him to defeat the Philistine warrior, likely Goliath, (see 1 Samuel 17 for the complete story).

Psalm 151 is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Eastern Orthodox, and Ethiopian Bibles all include Psalm 151. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains Psalm 151.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

Letter of Jeremiah

The Book of Letter of Jeremiah in the BibleThe Letter of Jeremiah, or the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a note of encouragement written by Jeremiah and sent to the exiles living in Babylon. The theme of the letter reminds the Jews in Babylon to avoid idols and idol worship.

A short one-chapter book, the Letter of Jeremiah, is comparable to, but different then, Jeremiah’s letter recorded in Jeremiah 29. Also, we see some similar language in Jeremiah 10:2-15.

Some versions of the Bible include the Letter of Jeremiah as an addendum to the book of Baruch, in Baruch 6. This includes the original Authorized King James Version (KJV), The New Jerusalem Bible, New American Bible (NAB), Good News Translation (GNT) and Douay-Rheims (DRA). Though Baruch did not write the letter, he may have preserved it and added it to his other writings. This is understandable, since Baruch was the scribe who helped Jeremiah record the prophet’s writings for the book of Jeremiah.

The Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Common English Bible (CEB), Revised Standard Version (RSV), and Wycliffe Bible (WYC) all include the Letter of Jeremiah. The Eastern Orthodox and Ethiopian Churches have the Letter of Jeremiah in their scriptures.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

4 Maccabees

The Book of 4 Maccabees in the BibleFourth Maccabees, written by an unknown author, is a philosophical treatise intertwined with graphic portrayals of persecution, torture, and death. The premise is that devout reason is superior to emotion and should therefore rule. The resolute suffering of the people profiled in 4 Maccabees shows how their reasoned faith in God allows them to overcome the threat of extreme, physical pain and imminent death.

Antiochus, set on annihilating the Jews, rounds them up and forces them to eat pork, an action abhorrent to their faith. Those who eat the forbidden food are freed. Those who don’t face extreme torture and death.

First martyred is Eleazar an elderly, respected priest. Though his persecutors beg him to eat the meat and save himself from pain and death, he refuses. The shorter account of his martyrdom is also found in 2 Maccabees 6:18-31.

Next is the eldest of seven sons. He is tortured and killed as his brothers and mother are forced to watch. In turn all seven brothers die a horrific death and finally their mother. All face their fate with resolute confidence. Their story is also told, in abbreviated form, in 2 Maccabees 7.

Fourth Maccabees is not found in all versions of the Bible or even all versions of the Apocrypha. However, the Eastern Orthodox and Ethiopian Bibles include 4 Maccabees. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains 4 Maccabees, as does the various versions of the RSV (Revised Standard Version) and the CEB (Common English Bible).

Compare to 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, and 3 Maccabees.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

3 Maccabees

Third Maccabees tells the story of Jewish persecution under King Ptolemy Philopator, likely Ptolemy IV, who lived from 245 to 202 BCE and ruled from 211 to 202 BCE.

The Book of 3 Maccabees in the BibleAfter Philopator defeats Antiochus, he has a celebration tour. He visits Jerusalem and wants to enter the temple, which Jewish Law prohibits. Though he doesn’t care about the Law and tries to proceed anyway, he is supernaturally stopped. As a result, a hatred for the Jews erupts. When he returns to Alexandria in Egypt, he rounds up the Jews with the intent to kill them in a grand public spectacle in the hippodrome.

Though several times the death of the Jews seems imminent, each time God intervenes and spares them for another day. After trying to crush them with 500 enraged, drunk elephants, the king finally gives up. He frees the Jews and has a conversion experience of sorts, affirming that “we have come to realize that the God of heaven surely defends the Jews,” (3 Maccabees 7:6, RSV).

Some people claim the name of 3 Maccabees is a misnomer, since the Maccabees are never mentioned by name. Yet Judas Maccabees, part of the priestly line, has a brother Simon. In 1 and 2 Maccabees, Simon (presumably Judas’s brother) is high priest. In 3 Maccabees 2:1, Simon is the high priest. Judas also has a brother Eleazar. An Eleazar is mentioned in 3 Maccabees 6:1-16.

Third Maccabees is not found in all versions of the Bible or even all versions of the Apocrypha. However, the Eastern Orthodox and Ethiopian Bibles include 3 Maccabees. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains 3 Maccabees, as does the various versions of the RSV (Revised Standard Version) and the CEB (Common English Bible).

Compare to 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, and 4 Maccabees.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

Expanded Daniel

The Book of Expanded Daniel in the BibleSome versions of the Bible include additional text for the book of Daniel, which isn’t found in most Protestant versions of the Bible. This additional text rounds out the story of Daniel and gives deeper insight into his life and faith.

This complete text of Daniel includes three additional sections inserted into the book:

Prayers in the Fiery Furnace: Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (better known as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego) are thrown into an inferno after refusing to bow down to the king’s statue. The intent is their execution, but God protects them. Much to the king’s astonishment, they walk around in the furnace, unharmed.

As they do, they sing (or pray). We find their words inserted into the text after Daniel 3:24. First we read Azariah’s confident prayer, followed by a bold refrain from all three. Amazed, the king calls them to come out of the furnace and then, he, too, affirms God, which is tacked on after Daniel 3:30.

Susanna: Listed as Daniel 13, this chapter focuses on the life and trials of the righteous Susanna, wrongly accused of adultery and sentenced to death. The young Daniel plays a pivotal role in her story, which is likely why this account is often included in the book of Daniel.

As the people march Susanna off to her execution, Daniel receives a revelation from God. Then Daniel boldly interrupts the procession and loudly proclaims her innocence. Now having the people’s attention, Daniel then proceeds to discredit the accuracy of the two corrupt judges who gave false testimony against Susanna.

In the end, the men are executed, Susanna is saved, and Daniel is celebrated.

Bel and the Dragon: Listed as Daniel 14, this account takes place much later in Daniel’s life. Having risen to a position of power, and gaining many enemies due to his faith and his success, King Cyrus and Daniel discuss his beliefs.

First the king asserts that Bel is a living god, but Daniel proves this not to be true. This results in the execution of the prophets of Bel, along with their families, and the razing of the temple of Bel.

Then Cyrus shifts attention to a great dragon that the people worship as a living god. Daniel also dismisses the dragon and brings about the dragon’s death.

Incensed, Daniel’s enemies pressure the king to throw Daniel into a pit of lions. This time he stays there for six days. Again God keeps him safe. On the seventh day, the king frees Daniel and executes his detractors.

The expanded version of Daniel is an Apocrypha text and not included in all versions of the Bible. The New Jerusalem Bible, New American Bible (NABRE), Douay-Rheims (DRA), and Eastern Orthodox Bibles all include the expanded version of Daniel. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains the expanded text of Daniel.

A few versions of the Bible, such as the original Authorized King James Version (KJV), the Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), and the Ethiopian Bible all pull out these three sections and include them as separate one-chapter books: The Song of the Three Holy Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

The Prayer of Azariah (Song of the Three Young Men)

The Book of The Prayer of Azariah (Song of the Three Young Men) in the BibleThe Revised Standard Version (RSV), Ethiopian Bible, and original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include The Prayer of Azariah, but this book isn’t found in most other versions of the Bible.

Going by different names in various versions, The Prayer of Azariah also goes by Song of the Three Young Men or The Song of the Three Holy Children.

In The Prayer of Azariah, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (better known as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego) are thrown into an inferno after refusing to bow to the king’s statue. The intent is their execution, but God protects them. Much to the king’s astonishment, they walk around in the furnace, unharmed.

As they do, they sing (or pray). This book records their words. First, we read Azariah’s confident prayer, followed by a bold refrain from all three. Amazed, the king calls them to come out of the furnace, and then he too affirms God.

The Prayer of Azariah is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Wycliffe Bible (WYC), Ethiopian Bible, and the original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include The Prayer of Azariah. However, The Prayer of Azariah was removed from the KJV almost two centuries after it was first published.

The New Jerusalem Bible, New American Bible (NABRE), and Douay-Rheims (DRA) also include this text, but list it as part of Daniel, specifically as part of Daniel 3. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains this text, but include it as part of Daniel.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

Susanna

The Book of Susanna in the BibleThe Revised Standard Version (RSV), Ethiopian Bible, and original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include the book of Susanna, but it isn’t found in most other versions of the Bible.

Susanna focuses on the pious life and crooked trial of the righteous Susanna, wrongly accused of adultery and sentenced to die. A young Daniel plays a pivotal role in her story.

As the people march Susanna off to her execution, Daniel receives a revelation from God. Then Daniel boldly interrupts the procession and loudly proclaims her innocence. Now having the people’s attention, Daniel then proceeds to discredit the accuracy of the two corrupt judges who gave false testimony against Susanna.

In the end, the two men who lied about her are executed, Susanna’s life is spared and her dignity restored, and Daniel is celebrated.

Susanna is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Wycliffe Bible (WYC), Ethiopian Bible, and the original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include Susanna. However, Susanna was removed from the KJV almost two centuries after it was first published.

The New Jerusalem Bible, New American Bible (NABRE), and Douay-Rheims (DRA) also include this text, but list it as part of Daniel, specifically as Daniel 13. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains this text, but include it as part of Daniel.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”

Bel and the Dragon

The Book of Bel and the Dragon in the BibleThe Revised Standard Version (RSV), Ethiopian Bible, and original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include the book Bel and the Dragon, but it isn’t found in most other versions of the Bible.

Bel and the Dragon takes place later in Daniel’s life. Having risen to a position of power, and gaining many enemies due to his faith and his success, King Cyrus and Daniel discuss his beliefs.

First, the king asserts that Bel is a living god, but Daniel proves Bel is nothing more than an inert idol. This results in the execution of the prophets of Bel, along with their families, and the razing of the temple of Bel.

Then Cyrus shifts the attention to a great dragon that the people worship as a living god. Daniel also dismisses the dragon and brings about the dragon’s death.

Incensed, Daniel’s enemies pressure the king to throw Daniel into a pit of lions. This time he stays there for six days. During this time, the prophet Habakkuk is carried by an angel from Judea to Daniel with food. Again, God keeps Daniel safe from the hungry lions. On the seventh day, the king frees Daniel and executes his detractors.

Bel and the Dragon is an Apocrypha book and not included in all versions of the Bible. The Revised Standard Version (RSV), Common English Bible (CEB), Wycliffe Bible (WYC), Ethiopian Bible, and the original Authorized King James Version (KJV) all include Bel and the Dragon. However, Bel and the Dragon was removed from the KJV almost two centuries after it was first published.

The New Jerusalem Bible, New American Bible (NABRE), and Douay-Rheims (DRA) also include this text, but list it as part of Daniel, specifically as Daniel 14. The Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, which was widely used in Jesus’s day, also contains this text, but include it as part of Daniel.

For more information, see why “Christians Should Consider the Entire Bible.”